Between Western and Eastern theaters
|Romeo and Juliet|
Performing arts, especially drama and theater is an art that comes from the community environment that is different from one environment to another environment. Trentu course, every place has a different character with the area and other places, let alone different countries. She has her own cultural roots, the original and unique culture.
Performing arts since antiquity occupies part of the cultural development of nations and communities Suatau. So the first model to show that we see today from the community and specific groups.
Most investigators believe, the root of theater began with storytelling traditions and fairy tales. Narration of a story and the audience who listen to the main character in every community theater. Initially legends and mythology that developed in the community begins the story of the hunt and war, who then grow increasingly complex.
Based on the results of excavations and archaeological evidence, since thousands of years humans have been interested in telling stories and listening to various mythological stories. After that, the topic of stories that were created and then expanded to other themes such as taming wild animals, agriculture, manufacturing of ceramics, and leave the nomadic way of life.
Theatre and drama in a modern form has now been developed from two to three thousand years ago. Various aspects of the world ancient civilizations, like Greek, Byzantine, Indian, Chinese and Persian respectively develop various kinds of performing arts ranging from drama genre of tragedy, comedy, puppet theater, to show art that smells religious rituals and mystique.
Relations and cultural exchanges among civilizations make the performing arts elements of each nation affected each other and subject to change. Change is growing rapidly in the 20th century through the support of media and information exchange between nations is increasingly open. Thus, in both East and West, art has a variety of transformation.
The role and services of cultural anthropologists and researchers in exploring and collecting various information about the richness of human culture is helpful in finding common thread between the performing arts traditions of West and East. The results of their research in the field of linguistics and sosialogi helped influence a lot of artistic development to encourage the artists to re merekonstrusi their works in the realm of music or performing arts.
Eastern art and culture today as the art of sculpture, architecture, handicrafts, and music as well as the structure of East stories receive much attention in the West, and many made the study of art. Commenting about the amazing influence of the West and the lifestyle of European artists, writers and experts of Iran Jalal Sattari mythology tells us, "The Effect of translation of the book Story of 1001 Nights to come and rule the spirit and new thinking includes the inclusion of imagination and passion in the way the speak and write in the era of Louis XIV and Louis XV had a role that can not be denied. This book is the much-acclaimed writers and artists and a major impact on the works of European romanticism. "
The influence of Eastern culture to the performing arts in Europe initially only dwell on the subject and appeal. But slowly penetrated down to the main structure of storytelling, script, story, and way of narration.
Jean Claude Carriere a director and a French playwright, who was one that has many important experiences in this matter, very menggandrungi culture of Asia and Iran. He has also staged theater Council of birds adopted from Al-Tayyir Mantiq story works great Iranian poet, Attar Neyshaburi. He said, "Fariduddin Attar is an Iranian poet and mystic who lived during the 12th century in Neyshabur, Iran.
Attar learn from his father. He has a shop that sells various kinds of herbal medicines and vegetables. But his fame in the realm of civilization Attar Islam-Iran because his works were filled with signs, history, and the formula Sufi ".
The Council of Bird containing a series of long poems, consisting of four thousand verses contain content seyr Irfani-seclusion. Al-Tayyir Mantiq is the story of a magical journey filled with challenges and adventure. But the story was told with a very sweet and attractive displays a variety of temptation and seduction of Satan. The story of the journey ends when it comes to the ultimate goal.
Al-Tayyar Mantiq story or the Council of Birds is filled with stories and parables like.All figures are described consisting of a variety of bird species. The story begins with hearing the birds to find the figure of the legendary king named Simorgh. This story is the story of the man who continues to move forward in a sea journey malignant.
Jean Claude Carriere and Peter Brook staged theater of the Council of birds in many countries and always received positive response. Despite eight centuries passed, but the language of Attar Neyshaburi still able to build a relationship with the people of the 20th century. In the theatrical Council of Bird in 1980, the theater of action played on a large stretch of carpet.
While every fragment of the trip was held on a smaller stretch of carpet. All the description of natural scenery deliberately not shown on the stage so the audience's imagination can be free to experiment. This composition is really thick with shades and a milestone keiranan beginning to roll out a new transformation in the arena of modern Western theater.
Peter Brook is one of western playwrights who have experienced because of her social development perspective in theater from the east. such as the theater of Bali, Indonesia.
Bertolt Brecht was a writer, director, poet, theorists from Germany, is the Western theater activist who also has strong ties with Eastern culture. He has a big role in the transformation of 20th-century theater. Many people call it a pioneer of postmodern theater. Brecht has a special love for the theater of traditional Chinese theater in particular East and Iran. He believed, the Eastern theater is a manifestation of life's journey. Brecht adopted the techniques of traditional Iranian theater pause and turn it into a new technique which he called the technique "exile".
In staging techniques like this, with a variety of ways the audience is always reminded that what they saw was a play and different from the actual event. Therefore, the audience must understand the distinction. The technique is applied to the way pelakonan characters, dialogue and the tactical nature of change and the elimination of decor or music.
Such techniques actually been practiced since hundreds of years ago in taziyeh, Iranian traditional theater. For example, the players at the beginning or middle of staging had told the audience about the role he played or plays. He also expressed his sympathies to the protagonist. Conversely if diperankannya antagonist, he also expressed contempt for the behavior of evil character.
Even in some staging taziyeh, the player accidentally took off his costume and take part expressed his sorrow for the tragedy that befell the main character. Iranian traditional theater techniques are applied to a relationship with the essence of theater is also adopted in the Western theater.
Arts dynamic theater experience with her social development worldwide. Although differences in skin color, ethnicity, religion, and language, but the same beliefs about the nature of such a noble Lord and noble ideas such as peace, love, and justice is owned by all. So he (theater) who have a language "other" has become the medium of storytelling experience Zahir human life.
Theatre is also tells the saga of thought and equality reasons. Dengan secret language and social values that brought the two perspectives can create a new seuatu, work, new forms with the process with local values. Thus, the art theater will develops and forward to the subsequent development of uniting the various races and ethnic and language in a container that is theater.